MAC architecture on UE side

This tutorial describes the specific details of the LTE MAC layer or the Medium Access Control protocol. MAC is a radio network protocol which resides both in the UE and in the E-UTRAN. Also, it should be noted that MAC protocol is available for both User plane and also for the control plane. RRC (Radio Resource Control) protocol is in (more ..)

First GSM Phone Call

GSM has over 90% market share, and is available in over 219 countries and territories. “GSM” is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. In 1981 Groupe Spécial Mobile was created to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telephony. European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) had taken this initiative. In 1987 Europe produced the very first (more ..)

LTE Soft handover

When LTE system was developed one of the big technical feature from UMTS Soft/Softer handover was missing from the architecture. There are many specific reasons why LTE dropped altogether soft handover (connect-before-break) from the system design. Before discussing about why LTE skipped soft handover and only implemented hard handover, let’s check the basic concept of soft/softer handover.

Confused Man

The term 3GPP specification covers all GSM (including GPRS and EDGE), W-CDMA (including HSPA) and LTE (including LTE-Advanced) specifications. Along with that network side terminology such as UTRAN, IMS, FOMA (in Japan) are also covered by 3GPP specifications. Each 3gpp specifications have their unique numbers. Though these numbers look complicated and unnecessary, they have their own significance. Assigning a unique (more ..)

Smartwatch Problems and Issues

Samsung, SONY, Qualcomm are already offering smartwatch and other wearable solutions. Then why there is little or none enthusiasm towards these products. Are these new and advanced watches have some basic problem which need to be addressed as soon as possible? In a time when all Smartphone manufacturers are jumping into smartwear business, it seems that there is no real (more ..)