3GPP or Third Generation Partnership Project drafts and releases specifications for mobile technologies, such as GSM/GPRS, UMTS (3G), HSDPA/HSUPA and LTE.

LTE Cat 0 for Internet of Things and M2M

Internet of Things is the buzzword at this moment. Whenever I go to a startup meetup these days, half of the discussion is about Internet of Things. Either it is connected cars or connected home or anything which can just talk to another device is the next big thing. Almost all ideas are now about connecting something to something. This (more ..)

5G Mobile Access

5G is coming and we all are curious about what the next generation mobile technology is going to offer! Though there is still sometime to see real world deployment (First 5G deployment plan is 2020), companies are putting their best efforts to shape the technology up. Among those who shown tremendous interest and working to make things work is Motorola. (more ..)

When is 5G Coming? What are We Expecting?

2020 will be the year when the first 5G network is scheduled to roll out and the work is in full swing. All organizations, operators, network vendors are putting their much needed efforts to make the 5G vision into reality. 5G as a technology is expected to enable a fully mobile and connected society and to empower socio-economic transformations in (more ..)

LTE Radio Interface Protocol Stack

This week I was giving a workshop on LTE RLC overview, when someone asked me how the LTE RLC ARQ works and what are the differences from UMTS. It was a awesome discussion. Though I was giving the workshop, but with that discussion I also became clear with many technical points. Radio Link Protocol in LTE is much more simpler (more ..)

RLC UMD PDU Encoding

Though RLC (Radio Link Control) layer in LTE is similar to that of UMTS, but still there are some significant differences. One of the big change is RLC LTE header structure for different PDU (Protocol Data Unit) types. When it comes to LTE, RLC can have the following PDU types RLC TMD PDU RLC UMD PDU RLC AMD PDU RLC (more ..)

Power Headroom Report Mapping

Power Headroom Report MAC control element tells if UE can transmit at a higher transmission power or not. In basic terms this indicates how much relative transmission power left in the UE. So a simple formula for Power Headroom in LTE is Power Headroom = UE Max Transmission Power – PUSCH Power = Pmax – P_pusch So if Power Headroom (more ..)


While studying the MAC specification today, I thought it would be a good idea to check the MAC Buffer Status Report (BSR) control element details. I had following questions in my mind about Buffer Status Report: Why is this control element used in LTE? What are different BSR CE formats?