3GPP or Third Generation Partnership Project drafts and releases specifications for mobile technologies, such as GSM/GPRS, UMTS (3G), HSDPA/HSUPA and LTE.

LTE Tracking Area Update Call Flow Procedure

In this tutorial, we will discuss the overview of LTE Tracking Area update and then discuss in details the end-to-end call flow signalling procedure. Before we begin, let’s check what is a Tracking Area in LTE network. LTE Tracking Area The tracking area is similar to Location Area and Routing area in UMTS, which is basically a geographical combination of (more ..)

What is LTE Direct - Device to Device Communication

LTE Direct is the autonomous long-distance D2D (Device to Device) protocol introduced in 3GPP Release 12 specification. This communication protocol will exploit direct communication between nearby LTE devices. The biggest benefit will be less spectrum utilization, better throughput, and energy consumption. At the same time, D2D will enable pear-to-pear location-based applications and services. As a theory LTE Direct can be (more ..)

LTE CS Fallback (CSFB) Call Flow Procedure

LTE is an all-IP network with no CS support. To support voice communication operators have many options. Voice Over LTE Voice Over WiFi CS Fallback Let’s check briefly about the above options for voice communication. Voice Over LTE (VoLTE) VoLTE is the true solution for voice communication over the all-IP LTE network. It uses the IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) to (more ..)

LTE Cat 0 for Internet of Things and M2M

Internet of Things is the buzzword at this moment. Whenever I go to a startup meetup these days, half of the discussion is about Internet of Things. Either it is connected cars or connected home or anything which can just talk to another device is the next big thing. Almost all ideas are now about connecting something to something. This (more ..)

5G Mobile Access

5G is coming and we all are curious about what the next generation mobile technology is going to offer! Though there is still sometime to see real world deployment (First 5G deployment plan is 2020), companies are putting their best efforts to shape the technology up. Among those who shown tremendous interest and working to make things work is Motorola. (more ..)

When is 5G Coming? What are We Expecting?

2020 will be the year when the first 5G network is scheduled to roll out and the work is in full swing. All organizations, operators, network vendors are putting their much needed efforts to make the 5G vision into reality. 5G as a technology is expected to enable a fully mobile and connected society and to empower socio-economic transformations in (more ..)

LTE Radio Interface Protocol Stack

This week I was giving a workshop on LTE RLC overview, when someone asked me how the LTE RLC ARQ works and what are the differences from UMTS. It was a awesome discussion. Though I was giving the workshop, but with that discussion I also became clear with many technical points. Radio Link Protocol in LTE is much more simpler (more ..)