5G the Real Answer for Internet Of Things (IoT) Complexity – Why is LTE not Enough?

Internet of Things is the buzzword and there is no doubt in that in one way or another we all are going to be part of the connected world where not only individuals but practically everything will be connected.

But the real question is HOW. Which technology will be the major backbone for this paradigm shift in wireless communication when neither voice nor data throughput become the primary concern, but connectivity. Can LTE solve the real world problems which will arise because of millions or even billions of connected nodes and individuals?

In a new study by GSMA it is estimated that IoT will drive the device connection density to the extreme, eventually reaching 200,000 connections per km². Which will generate a significant signalling load for the network if a connection oriented technology such as LTE is used. Along with that the new device to device communication puts new requirements for reduced latency, improved reliability, longer battery life for devices and more consistent user bit rates.

Future of Mobile/Wireless Computing

Mobile phone users worldwide 2012 to 2018 (in billions)

Mobile phone users worldwide 2012 2018   Statistic
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How to Calculate LTE Data Rate – Downlink Throughput

This tutorial explains how LTE downlink maximum throughput is determined. This is a simple and straightforward formula for data rate calculation.

The maximum data rate depends on channel bandwidth. As LTE uses different channel bandwidths both for FDD and TDD.

Let’s take the example for LTE using FDD, where channel bandwidth can be 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz. In LTE release 8 there is no carrier aggregation, so let’s just consider simple cases.
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IMS Multimedia Emergency Session (MES) – Emergency calls in the IM CN subsystem

A few weeks ago I was looking into an issue related to E911 or Emergency call over the IMS network. Though it appears as most of the concepts related to emergency calls are still same in IMS as compared to legacy systems, such as 3G and GSM, there are many new things are added for IMS.

Both in UMTS and GSM and other CS based systems emergency call was often referred to speech calls, but the IP Multimedia Subsystem(IMS) supports different other types of media along with speech calls. When other media types are used during an emergency session, it is referred as IMS Multimedia Emergency Session (MES).

As usual whenever the user calls an emergency number by default the call is routed to the emergency service.

Let’s find it out what different media types an IMS UE supports during a E911 session towards IP PSAPs (emergency response centre).

  • Real time video both simplex and fullduplex
  • Text-messaging (Similar to SMS)
  • File transfer
  • Video clip sharing, picture sharing, audio clip sharing
  • Voice
  • GTT

IMS Multimedia Emergency Session Other Media Continue reading

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IPhone 6 Comes with Qualcomm’s MDM9625 LTE Modem

According to latest reports Apple iPhone 6 will feature a Qualcomm MDM9625 LTE modem. Though the wireless modem is not the best from Qualcomm and not the latest, still it features some of the best technology options.

Here are some of the things you should expect from iPhone 6 modem.

Qualcomm MDM9625

Qualcomm MDM9625 features HSPA+ Release 10 and the next-generation of the LTE mobile broadband standard, LTE Advanced in the same chip. Apart from that MDM9625 is a category 4 LTE modem and supports Carrier Aggregation. This improves the downlink data rates up to 150 Mbps. Implemented in a 28nm manufacturing process, the chipsets will feature significant improvements in performance and power consumption from previous generations and provide support for multiple mobile broadband technologies to deliver a best-in-class mobile broadband experience.

Here are the key features of Qualcomm MDM9625 modem which will power Apple iPhone 6:

  • 28nm chipset design
  • Supports LTE Advanced (LTE Release 10)
  • Supports HSPA+ Release 10 (including 84 Mbps dual carrier HSDPA)
  • Backward compatible with other standards, including EV-DO Advanced, TD-SCDMA and GSM.
  • Downlink throughput of 150 Mbps when using LTE Advanced

Here is a video which shows what Qualcomm MDM9625 can capable of:

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LTE MAC Layer – Medium Access Control

LTE User Plane and Control Plane
This tutorial describes the specific details of the LTE MAC layer or the Medium Access Control protocol. MAC is a radio network protocol which resides both in the UE and in the E-UTRAN. Also, it should be noted that MAC protocol is available for both User plane and also for the control plane.

RRC (Radio Resource Control) protocol is in control of the configuration of MAC that means RRC decides how MAC will behave. For example RRC tells MAC to configure a specific PDU size. Continue reading

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