Prashant Panigrahi

When is 5G Coming? What are We Expecting?

2020 will be the year when the first 5G network is scheduled to roll out and the work is in full swing. All organizations, operators, network vendors are putting their much needed efforts to make the 5G vision into reality. 5G as a technology is expected to enable a fully mobile and connected society and to empower socio-economic transformations in (more ..)

LTE Radio Interface Protocol Stack

This week I was giving a workshop on LTE RLC overview, when someone asked me how the LTE RLC ARQ works and what are the differences from UMTS. It was a awesome discussion. Though I was giving the workshop, but with that discussion I also became clear with many technical points. Radio Link Protocol in LTE is much more simpler (more ..)

RLC UMD PDU Encoding

Though RLC (Radio Link Control) layer in LTE is similar to that of UMTS, but still there are some significant differences. One of the big change is RLC LTE header structure for different PDU (Protocol Data Unit) types. When it comes to LTE, RLC can have the following PDU types RLC TMD PDU RLC UMD PDU RLC AMD PDU RLC (more ..)

Power Headroom Report Mapping

Power Headroom Report MAC control element tells if UE can transmit at a higher transmission power or not. In basic terms this indicates how much relative transmission power left in the UE. So a simple formula for Power Headroom in LTE is Power Headroom = UE Max Transmission Power – PUSCH Power = Pmax – P_pusch So if Power Headroom (more ..)


While studying the MAC specification today, I thought it would be a good idea to check the MAC Buffer Status Report (BSR) control element details. I had following questions in my mind about Buffer Status Report: Why is this control element used in LTE? What are different BSR CE formats?

LTE Maximum data rate throughput

This tutorial explains how LTE downlink maximum throughput is determined. This is a simple and straightforward formula for data rate calculation. The maximum data rate depends on channel bandwidth. As LTE uses different channel bandwidths both for FDD and TDD. Let’s take the example for LTE using FDD, where channel bandwidth can be 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz. (more ..)